The Learning Record


Informal White Papers

From the Web to Walden

Joy to the World

Roses, grasses, chicks, and children

An Open Assessment Manifesto

Other Links

Frequently-asked questions


Minimal Marking

Small multiples for tracking work

Sample grading criteria


Sources of Support


Contact Information

Fair Test: The National Center for Fair and Open Testing


Sources of further information about the Learning Record model of assessment and its theoretical and methodological foundations.
  1. Allen, B. M. (1998). Deaf Children and the Families' Perspectives. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, San Diego State & Claremont Graduate University, San Diego & Claremont, CA.
  2. Arntson, D. (1994). Reflective Reading: Self-Regulating Strategies for Emergent Readers. Unpublished M. A. Thesis, University of California at San Diego.
  3. Assessment, N. F. o. (1995). Principles and Indicators for Student Assessment Systems. Cambridge, MA: National Center for Fair & Open Testing (FairTest).
  4. Badger, E. (1995). The role of expectations and fairness in state wide assessment programs: Lessons from Massachusetts. In M. T. Nettles & A. L. Nettles (Eds.), Equity and Excellence in Educational Testing and Assessment, . Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  5. Ball, A. F. (1993). Incorporating Ethnographic-Based Techniques to Enhance Assessments of Culturally Diverse Students' Written Exposition. Educational Assessment, 1(3, Summer), 255-281.
  6. Barnes, D., Britton, J., & Torbe, M. (1987). Language, the Learner and the School. (3rd ed.). Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books.
  7. Barr, M. A. (1992). The view from California. Language Matters, a periodical published by the Centre for Language in Primary Education, London: English for Ages 5-16, 3, 28-29.
  8. Barr, M. A. (1995a). California Learning Record: A Handbook for Teachers, Grades 6-12. San Diego, CA: University of California at San Diego Bookstore.
  9. Barr, M. A. (1995b). Who's Going to Interpret Performance Standards? A Case for Teacher Judgment. In P. H. Dreyer (Ed.), The Claremont Reading Conference 59th Yearbook, Claremont, CA: Institute for Developmental Studies of The Claremont Graduate School.
  10. Barr, M. A. (1995c, ). The California Learning Record system of assessment link classroom and board room. California Curriculum News Report, 20, 5.
  11. Barr, M. A. (1995d). Collecting data, telling stories: teacher contributions to classroom-based assessment. Executive Summary of California Education, 3(2), 26-30.
  12. Barr, M. A. (1997). Linking learning and assessment. Thrust for Educational Leadership (February/March), 4-7.
  13. Barr, M. A. (2000). Looking at the Learning Record. Educational Leadership, February, 20-24.
  14. Barr, M. A. , & Cheong, J. (1995). Achieving equity: Counting on the Classroom. In M. T. Nettles & A. L. Nettles (Eds.), Equity and Excellence in Educational Testing and Assessment, (pp. 161-184). Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  15. Barr, M. A., & Cooper, W. (Eds.). (1996). The PLR/CLR in Use. El Cajon,CA: Center for Language in Learning.
  16. Barr, M. A., & Hallam, P. J. (1997, 1998, 1999, 2000). Connecting Classroom and Large Scale Assessment (Preliminary findings, LR moderations 5). El Cajon, CA: Center for Language in Learning.
  17. Barr, M. A., & Hallam, P. J. (1996). Teacher parity in assessment with the California Learning Record. In R. A. Calfee & S. W. Freedman (Eds.), Writing Portfolios in the Classroom: Policy and Practice, Promise and Peril. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  18. Barr, M. A. , & Syverson, M. A. (1994). California Learning Record: A Handbook for Teachers, K-6. San Diego, CA: Center for Language in Learning.
  19. Barrs, Myra. "The Assessment of Creative Learning." Creative Learning. London: Arts Council England, 2008. 73-87.
  20. Barrs, Myra. "The Creative Community of Pistoia." Teaching Thinking. 8:1.22 (2007): 18-27.
  21. Barrs, M. (1990a). The Primary Language Record: Reflection of issues in evaluation. Language Arts, 67(March), 244-253.
  22. Barrs, M. (1990b). Words Not Numbers: Assessment in English. Exeter: National Association of Teachers of English.
  23. Barrs, M., & Thomas, A. (Eds.). (1991). The Reading Book. London: Centre for Language in Primary Education.
  24. Barrs, M., Ellis, S., Hester, H., & Thomas, A. (1988). Patterns of Learning: The Primary Language Record and the national curriculum. London: Centre for Language in Primary Education, Webber Row, London SE1 8QW.
  25. Barrs, M., Ellis, S., Hester, H., & Thomas, A. (1989). The Primary Language Record: Handbook for Teachers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
  26. Britton J. (1992) Language and Learning (2nd. ed.). Portsmouth, N.H.: Boynton/Cook, Heinemann Publishers.
  27. Bruner, Jerome. Acts of Meaning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990.
  28. Calfee, Robert. "Authentic Assessment of Reading and Writing in the Elementary Classroom." Elementary School Literacy: Critical Issues. Ed. Mariam Jean Dreher and Wayne H. Slater. Norwood, MA: Christopher Gordon, 1992. 211-226.
  29. Campbell, L., and Campbell, B. (1999). Multiple Intelligences and Student Achievement: Success Stories from Six Schools. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 63-64, 75-89.
  30. Claggett, F. (1996). A Measure of Success: From Assignment to Assessment in English Language Arts. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook Heinemann Publishers.
  31. Cole, Michael, et al. The Cultural Context of Learning and Thinking: An Exploration in Experimental Anthropology. New York: Basic Books, 1971.
  32. Corson, D. (1990). Language policy across the curriculum. Clevedon Avon, U.K.: Multilingual Matters.
  33. Cushman, K. (1996, November). The Primary Language Record & the California Learning Record. Horace: A publication of the Coalition of Essential Schools, 13, 5-6.
  34. Darling-Hammond, L., Einbender, L., Frelow, F., & Ley-King, J. (1993). Authentic Assessment in Practice: A Collection of Portfolios, Performance Tasks, Exhibitions, and Documentation. New York City: National Center for Restructuring Education, Schools, and Teaching (NCREST): Teachers College, Columbia University.
  35. Darling-Hammond, L. (1995). Policy for restructuring. In A. Lieberman (Ed.), The work of restructuring schools . New York: Teachers' College Press.
  36. Darling-Hammond, L. (1995). Equity issues in performance-based assessment. In M. T. Nettles & A. L. Nettles (Eds.), Equity and Excellence in Educational Testing and Assessment, (pp. 89-114). Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  37. DeLawter, Jayne, and Carol Hendsch. "California Learning Record: Observations and Samples of Learning." Whole Language Catalog: Supplement on Authentic Assessment. Ed. Kenneth S. Goodman, Lois Bridges Bird and Yetta M. Goodman. Santa Rosa, CA: American School Publishers, 1992.
  38. Dias, P. (1998). Speaking Their Minds: A Learning Record Report (Occasional Paper, No. 2). El Cajon, CA: Center for Language in Learning.
  39. Eccles, J. S., & Midgly, C. (1989). Stage-environment fit: Developmentally appropriate classrooms for young adolescents. In C. Ames & R. Ames (Eds.), Research on motivation in education (pp. 139-185). New York: Academy Press, Inc.
  40. Falk, B., & Darling-Hammond, L. (1993). The Primary Language Record at P.S. 261: How Assessment Transforms Teaching and Learning : National Center for Restructuring Education, Schools, and Teaching: Teachers College, Columbia University.
  41. Falk, B., MacMurdy, S., & Darling-Hammond, L. (1995). Taking a Different Look: How the Primary Language Record Supports Teaching for Diverse Learners. New York: National Center for Restructuring Education, Schools and Teaching (NCREST),.
  42. Feltovich, Paul J., Rand J. Spiro, and Richard Coulson. "Learning, Teaching, and Testing for Complex Conceptual Understanding." Test Theory for a New Generation of Tests. Ed. Norman Frederiksen, Robert J. Mislevy and Isaac I. Bejar. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1993. 181-217.
  43. Fisette, D. (1993). Practical authentic assessment: Good kid watchers know what to teach next! The Reading Teacher, 26(4), 4-9.
  44. Fox, S. J. (1998). Student assessment or what is a roach? In K. Swisher & J. Tippeconnic (Eds.), Next Steps: Research and Practice to Advance Indian Education, ERIC: CRESS.
  45. Freedman, S. W. (1993). Linking Large-Scale Testing and Classroom Portfolio Assessments of Student Writing. Educational Assessment, 1(1), 27-52.
  46. Galegher, Jolene, Robert E. Kraut, and Carmen Egido, ed. Intellectual Teamwork: Social and Technological Foundations of Cooperative Work. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1990.
  47. Garcia, G. E. and Pearson, P. D. (1991). The role of assessment in a diverse society. In E. H. Hiebert (ED.), Literacy for a Diverse Society, (253-277). New York: Teachers College Press.
  48. Ghio, J. (1998). "Becoming accomplished readers in the high school classsroom with the help of the Learning Record." California English 3(Summer): 11-13.
  49. González, Roseann Dueñas. National Standards and Culturally/Linguistically Diverse Students: A Question of Equity. National Council of Teachers of English, 1993.
  50. Goodman, J. (1995). "Change without Difference." Harvard Educational Review, 65 (1), 1-29.
  51. Hallam, P.J. (2000). Reliability and validity of teacher-based reading assessment: Application of “Quality Assurance for Teacher-based Assessment” (QATA) to California Learning Record moderations. Doctoral dissertation. Berkeley, CA: UC Berkeley.
  52. Hargreaves, A. (1996). "Transforming knowledge: Blurring the boundaries between research, policy, and practice." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 18(2, Summer), 105-122.)
  53. Harlen, W. (Ed.). (1994). Enhancing Quality in Assessment. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.
  54. Harlen, Wynne. Concepts of Quality in Student Assessment. AERA. New Orleans: 1994.
  55. Hawisher, Gail, and Paul LeBlanc. Re-imagining Computers and Composition: Teaching and Research in the Virtual Age. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1992.
  56. Heath, Shirley Brice. Ways with Words: Language, Life, and Work in Communities and Classrooms. London: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
  57. Haynes, C., & Holmevik, J. R. (Eds.). (1998). High Wired: On the Design, Use, and Theory of Educational MOOs. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan UP.
  58. Holmevik, J. R., & Haynes, C. (2000). MOOniversity: A Student's Guide to Online Learning Environments. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  59. Hutchins, Edwin, and Brian Hazlehurst. "Learning in the Cultural Process." Artifical Life II. Ed. C. G. Langton, et al. SFI Studies in the Sciences of Complexity. New York: Addison-Wesley, 1991. X: 689-706.
  60. Hutchins, Edwin. "The Social Organization of Distributed Cognition." Perspectives on Socially Shared Cognition. Ed. Lauren B. Resnick, John M. Levine and Stephanie Teasley. Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association, 1991. 283-307.
  61. Hutchins, Edwin. Cognition in the Wild. MIT Press, 1995.
  62. IRA/NCTE, J. T. F. o. A. (1995). Standards for the Assessment of Reading and Writing: International Reading Association and the National Council of Teachers of English.
  63. Johnston, P. H. (1992). Constructive Evaluation of Literate Activity. New York: Longman Publishing Group.
  64. Khalsa, S. G., Petty, L., and Williams, D. (1991). Making connections: How the PLR is influencing teachers in California. Language Matters, 2.
  65. Kiesler, Sara, Jane Siegel, and Timothy W. McGuire. "Social Psychological Aspects of Computer-Mediated Communication." American Psychologist 39.10 (1984): 1123-1134.
  66. Kohn, Alfie. Punished by Rewards: The Trouble with Gold Stars, Incentive Plans, A's, Praise, and Other Bribes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1993.
  67. Kohn, A. (1999). The Schools Our Children Deserve: Moving Beyond Traditional Classrooms and "Tougher Standards". Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 199-200.
  68. Kohn, A. (2000). The Case Against Standardized Testing: Raising the Scores, Ruining the Schools. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 43-44.
  69. Lave, Jean. "Situating Learning in Communities of Practice." Perspectives on Socially Shared Cognition. Ed. Lauren B. Resnick, John M. Levine and Stephanie Teasley. Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association, 1991. 63-82.
  70. LeFevre, Karen Burke. Invention as a Social Act. Studies in Writing and Rhetoric. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1987.
  71. Lien, J. D. M. (1999) The Learning Record: Educational fad or model for the future? In Texas Alcalde, July/August, 16.
  72. Louis, K. S. (1994). "Beyond managed change: Rethinking how schools improve." School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 5(1), 2-24.
  73. McDonald, Joseph P. "Three Pictures of an Exhibition: Warm, Cool, and Hard." Phi Delta Kappan .February (1993): 480-485.
  74. Miserlis, S. (1993). "The classroom as an anthropological dig: Using the California Learning Record (CLR) as a framework for assessment and instruction." The Claremont Reading Conference 57th Yearbook, Claremont, CA: Center for Developmental Studies of The Claremont Graduate School.
  75. Mislevy, R. (1995). "What can we learn from international assessment?" Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 17(Winter), 419-437.
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  77. Moss, P. A. (1996). "Enlarging the dialogue in educational measurement: Voices from interpretive research traditions." Educational Researcher, 25(January-February), 20-28, 43.
  78. National Center for Fair & Open Testing (1995). Principles and Indicators for Student Assessment Systems. Cambridge: National Center for Fair & Open Testing (FairTest).
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  81. Neil, M. (1999). U.S. agency adopts Learning Record & new Learning Record handbooks. FairTest Examiner, 13(2(Spring), 9 & 13.
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  88. Sadler, D. R. (1986). Subjectivity, objectivity, and teachers' qualitative judgments. Queensland, Australia, Board of Secondary School Studies: 1-7.
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